1. Are there peri-operative antibiotics that should be used for patients who have specific preoperative risk factors for shoulder PJI (consider sex and comorbidities)?
  2. Do surgical drains influence the risk of infection in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty (primary and revision)?
  3. Does previous surgery (arthroscopic or open non-arthroplasty) increase the risk of PJI?
  4. Does prior corticosteroid injection increase the risk of SSI/PJI after shoulder arthroplasty (primary and revision)?
  5. Does the sampling technique (number of samples, anatomic locations) of the tissue obtained in the evaluation for shoulder PJI affect the result of frozen section and permanent histology?
  6. Does the sampling technique (number of samples, tissue versus fluid versus implant, anatomic locations) affect the results for culture of specimens obtained in the evaluation of shoulder PJI?
  7. In occult or unsuspected PJI, how long should oral suppressive antimicrobial therapy be given in the setting of retained prostheses after initial iv therapy?
  8. Is there a role for postoperative antibiotic treatment when a one-stage revision arthroplasty is performed for occult or unsuspected PJI of the shoulder caused by an virulent organism (MRSA, MSSA, E. coli)?
  9. Is there a need for antibiotic therapy following irrigation and debridement of patients with acute shoulder PJI caused by a virulent organism (MRSA, MSSA, E. coli)
  10. Is there a role for antibiotic therapy in the management of acute shoulder PJI with an indolent organism (P. acnes, coag. neg. staph spec) after I&D?
  11. Is there a role for irrigation and debridement with implant retention when treating acute shoulder PJI?
  12. Is there a role for Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technique in the diagnosis of shoulder PJI?
  13. Is there a role for non-operative suppressive treatment in the management of subacute/chronic shoulder PJI? (Fragile patients, preserved function, no general signs, failure of previous surgeries…)?
  14. Is there a role for obtaining tissue cultures when performing an I&D for hematoma after shoulder (primary or revision) arthroplasty?
  15. Is there a role for oral suppressive antimicrobial therapy in the setting of retained prostheses after iv therapy in subacute/chronic PJI?
  16. Is there a role for Polymerase chain reaction technique in the diagnosis of shoulder PJI?
  17. Is there a role for postoperative antibiotic treatment when a one-stage revision arthroplasty is performed for occult or unsuspected PJI of the shoulder caused by an indolent organism (P. acnes, coag. neg. staph spec)
  18. Is there a role for post-operative antibiotics after performing an I&D for hematoma after shoulder (primary or revision) arthroplasty while awaiting cultures?
  19. Is there a role for postop prophylactic/suppressive (pending culture results) antibiotics after revision shoulder arthroplasty without clinical or radiographic signs of infection? (Should it differ by pathogen eg MSSA/MRSA/P Acnes)?
  20. Is there a role for preoperative joint aspiration in the evaluation of a shoulder arthroplasty for PJI?
  21. Is there a role for preoperative joint aspiration prior to second stage revision after treatment of shoulder PJI?
  22. Is there a role for pre-operative open or arthroscopic tissue biopsy in the evaluation prior to initial revision shoulder arthroplasty? 
  23. Is there a role for pre-operative open or arthroscopic tissue biopsy in the evaluation prior to second stage revision after treatment of shoulder PJI?
  24. Is there a role for pre-operative skin scrub prior to (primary and revision) shoulder arthroplasty? (Patient pre/scrub prior to surgery- home scrubs and washes)?
  25. Is there a role for an antibiotic spacer for the treatment of shoulder PJI? (consider ease of revision, eradication of infection, functional outcome)
  26. Is there a role for resection shoulder arthroplasty in the management of subacute/chronic PJI?
  27. Is there a role for revision of well fixed implants in revision shoulder arthroplasty without clinical or radiographic signs of infection?
  28. Is there a role for serum D-dimer in the evaluation of a shoulder arthroplasty for PJI?
  29. Is there a role for sonication of retrieved shoulder implants in the diagnosis of shoulder PJI?
  30. Is there a role for synovial cytokines in the diagnosis of shoulder PJI?
  31. Is there a role for synovial fluid alpha-defensin in the diagnosis of shoulder periprosthetic joint infection (PJI)?
  32. Is there a role for synovial fluid leukocyte esterase strip testing in the diagnosis of shoulder PJI?
  33. Is there a role for synovial fluid TNFalpha and IL-2 in the diagnosis of shoulder PJI?
  34. Is there a role for synovial fluid WBC count in the diagnosis of shoulder PJI?
  35. a) Is there a role for synovial IL-6 in the diagnosis of shoulder PJI? b) Is there a role for serum IL-6 in the diagnosis of shoulder PJI?
  36. Is there a role for topical skin treatments prior to shoulder arthroplasty (primary and revision)?
  37. Is there a role of oral suppressive antimicrobial therapy in acute PJI in the setting of retained prostheses after initial IV therapy? (Same duration for knees, hips, and shoulders? Should it differ by pathogen (e.g. MSSA vs MRSA)?)
  38. Should antibiotic-impregnated cement be used during shoulder arthroplasty (primary and revision)?
  39. Should bone autograft or cement be removed during treatment of acute shoulder PJI?
  40. Should bone autograft or cement be removed in treatment for subacute/chronic shoulder PJI?
  41. Should modular implant parts be exchanged during I&D of acute shoulder PJI?
  42. Should modular parts be exchanged during I&D of subacute/chronic shoulder PJI?
  43. Should pre-operative antibiotics be held until after cultures are obtained in revision shoulder arthroplasty?
  44. Should Cutibacterium acnes (formerly known as Propionibacterium acnes) isolated in samples from the shoulder be speciated?
  45. Should the duration of oral suppressive antimicrobial therapy differ by pathogen (e.g. MSSA vs MRSA) in the treatment of subacute/chronic shoulder PJI?
  46. Should the subcutaneous and dermal tissues be disinfected during shoulder arthroplasty?
  47. Should tissue cultures obtained in primary arthroplasty cases with history of prior surgery (arthroscopic, open, ORIF, or other non arthroplasty surgery)?
  48. Should tissue samples be obtained for culture in all revision shoulder arthroplasties?
  49. Should well fixed glenoid components be removed during I&D of subacute/chronic shoulder PJI?
  50. What are the diagnostic criteria of shoulder PJI? Are there subcategories? Depending on the timing of presentation-acute post-op vs subacute vs chronic occult?
  51. What are the indications for irrigation and debridement with component retention in subacute/chronic shoulder PJI?
  52. What are the indications for resection shoulder arthroplasty in acute PJI?
  53. What are the indications for single vs two stage revision in subacute/chronic shoulder PJI?
  54. What are the optimal peri-operative antibiotics for patients undergoing revision shoulder arthroplasty?
  55. What are the optimal peri-operative antibiotics for primary shoulder arthroplasty?
  56. What clinical criteria should be included in the definition of shoulder PJI? Gross wound changes-swelling, erythema, drainage
  57. What intraoperative findings should be included in the definition of shoulder PJI?- purulence, synovial fluid analysis, histology, gross biofilm, culture results
  58. What is the optimal antibiotic treatment for culture-negative cases with positive clinical, radiographic, or intraoperative findings for acute PJI?
  59. What is the optimal antibiotic treatment for culture-negative cases with positive clinical, radiographic, or intraoperative findings for subacute/chronic PJI?
  60. What is the optimal culture technique (e.g. culture medium, days of cultivation) in evaluating patients for infections of the shoulder?
  61. What is the optimal duration of peri-operative antibiotics for shoulder arthroplasty (primary and revision)?
  62. What is the optimal implant for treatment of acute PJI: reverse TSA vs anatomic TSA vs hemiarthroplasty?  (Consider bone loss, soft tissue management, and patient profile)
  63. What is the optimal implant for treatment of subacute/chronic PJI: reverse TSA vs anatomic TSA vs hemiarthroplasty? (Consider bone loss, soft tissue management, and patient profile)
  64. What Is the optimal perioperative surgical skin prep for shoulder arthroplasty (primary and revision)?
  65. What is the relevance (if any) of unexpected positive cultures (UPC) in revision shoulder arthroplasty without clinical or radiographic signs of infection?
  66. What is the relevance of positive cultures in the evaluation for shoulder PJI? What defines a clinically relevant positive culture result(s) versus a culture contaminant (number or percentage of positive cultures, days to first positive culture, etc.)?
  67. What is the role for peri-prosthetic frozen section and permanent histology in evaluation of a shoulder arthroplasty for PJI?
  68. What is the role for serum ESR, CRP, or WBC count in the evaluation of a shoulder arthroplasty for PJI?
  69. What is the role of tranexamic acid (TXA) in primary and revision shoulder arthroplasty?
  70. What is the role of medical comorbidities as potential risk factors for shoulder PJI (primary and revision)?
  71. What is the role of one versus two-stage exchange arthroplasty in the management of acute shoulder PJI?
  72. What is the role of quantitative evaluation (e.g. densitity of bacteria, propi score) of positive cultures from the shoulder?
  73. What is the role of topical intrawound antiseptics and antibiotics powder (such as vancomycin) during shoulder arthroplasty (primary and revision)? Consider risks and comparison with dilute betadine lavage, acetic acid, antibiotics added to the irrigation solution?
  74. What is the treatment (if any) of unexpected positive cultures (UPC) in revision shoulder arthroplasty without clinical or radiographic signs of infection?
  75. What radiographic criteria should be included in the definition of shoulder PJI?- Implant loosening, osteolysis
  76. What should be the recommendations regarding the type (IV versus PO) and length of postoperative antibiotic treatment when a one-stage revision arthroplasty is performed for subacute/chronic shoulder PJI of the shoulder caused by an indolent organism (P. acnes, coag. neg. staph spec)
  77. What should be the recommendations regarding the type (IV versus PO) and length of postoperative antibiotic treatment when a one-stage revision arthroplasty is performed for subacute/chronic shoulder PJI of the shoulder caused by an virulent organism (MRSA, MSSA, E. coli)?