1. Are there any diagnostic tools that are useful for early SSI detection following spinal surgery? Does this differ if there was instrumentation or not?
  2. Are there patients with degenerative pathology, such as disc herniations, who are actually infected with a low-grade infection (e.g. Propionibacterium acnes)?
  3. Can allograft or synthetic bone substitute or autograft be used during revision spinal surgery in patients with prior spine infection?
  4. Can non-surgical approach be used to treat postoperative spine infections? If so what factors predict successful outcome?
  5. Does prior or active tuberculosis preclude patients from undergoing spine surgery?
  6. Does the use of allograft increase the risk of spinal infection?
  7. How can postoperative infections be distinguished from normal postoperative changes on MRI?
  8. How do early and late infectious complications differ following spine surgery?
  9. How long antibiotic should be administered after surgical debridement for an acute postsurgical spinal infection?
  10. How long should antibiotics be continued where spinal wounds are left to heal by secondary intention?
  11. How many intraoperative tissue samples should be sent for culture in suspected spinal surgery infection?
  12. How should patients currently using DMARDs be managed in the perioperative period?
  13. How should patients with postoperative diarrhea following spine surgery be managed?
  14. In a patient without an infection, should prophylactic antibiotics end after 24 hours or be continued until the drains are removed?
  15. Is negative pressure wound therapy effective in the treatment of wounds that are left to heal by secondary intention?
  16. Is negative pressure wound therapy safe on spinal wounds in patients with a CSF leak?
  17. Is postoperative hyperglycemia a risk factor for the development of infection following spinal surgery?
  18. Is there a difference in the efficacy of Vancomycin beads versus Vancomycin powder for spinal implant infections?
  19. Is there a length of time of infection beyond which instrumentation should be removed?
  20. Is there a role for chronic antibiotic suppression after treating patients with retained infected spinal hardware?
  21. Is there a role for combination antibiotics (ie dual or triple) in treating patients with SSI following spinal surgery?
  22. Is there a role for CT scan with contrast in the diagnosis of spinal infections in patients who cannot undergo MRI?
  23. Is there a role for molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or next generation sequencing (NGS) for diagnosis of spinal surgery infection? If so, in which group of patients should this be done?
  24. Is there a role for nuclear imaging (e.g. PET scan) in the diagnosis of spinal infections?
  25. Is there a role for one-stage exchange of hardware in the presence of spinal infections?
  26. Is there a role for oral antibiotics in the prevention of infection in patients with draining wounds following spinal surgery?
  27. Is there a role for oral antibiotics in the treatment of early postoperative spine infections?
  28. Is there a role for routine decolonization of patients undergoing spine surgery? If so, what is the optimal agent(s)?
  29. Is there a role for the addition of gentamicin to perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in spine surgery?
  30. Is there a role for the use of oral antibiotic in treatment of acute and chronic spinal infections?
  31. Is there a role for the use of serum biomarker for diagnosis of spinal surgical site infection?
  32. Is there an association between UTI and SSI following spinal surgery?
  33. Is there an optimal window for diagnosis of an early spine infection?
  34. Should a cage be removed in patients with postoperative spine infection?
  35. Should all patients with psoas abscesses be screened for both spine and hip infections?
  36. Should antibiotics be held prior to image guided biopsy/aspiration for a suspected spine infection?
  37. Should bone graft be removed in patients with postoperative spine infection? If yes, should a distinction be made between allograft and autograft?
  38. Should Gram negative preoperative antibiotic coverage be utilized in some cases?
  39. Should infected wounds undergo primary closure or a two stage closure?
  40. Should prophylactic antibiotic prophylaxis be repeated during spine surgery? If so, when?
  41. Should routine MRSA screening be in place prior to spine surgery?
  42. Should vancomycin powder be applied to the wound in patients undergoing spinal surgeries? Are there any potential harms associated with this practice?
  43. What are the early infectious complications after operations on the spine following the use of instrumentation?
  44. What are the indications for implant retention or removal of hardware in spinal infections?
  45. What are the risk factors predisposing a patient to SSI after spine surgery?
  46. What are the risks and benefits for the use of Vac assisted devices/PICO dressings following spine surgery?
  47. What defines delay in the diagnosis of a spine infection?
  48. What investigations should samples obtained by image-guided biopsy be sent for?
  49. What is the definition of surgical site infection in spinal surgery?
  50. What is the diagnostic algorithm of patients with suspected hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis? Is the algorithm different for patients with tuberculosis?
  51. What is the incidence of infectious meningitis following spinal surgery? Does the use of instrumentation affect this?
  52. What is the indication for muscle advancement flaps in patients with spinal infections?
  53. What is the optimal duration of antibiotic treatment following spine infection in patients in whom hardware is retained? Is the antibiotic treatment different for those with spine infection without hardware?
  54. What is the optimal imaging in diagnosis of spine infections? If MRI is contraindicated, what imaging modality should be used?
  55. What is the optimal irrigation solution (volume,type, and frequency) during clean or infected spinal surgery cases?
  56. What is the optimal perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing spine surgery? What considerations should be made in cases of drug allergies?
  57. What is the optimal prophylactic antibiotics for patients with neurogenic bladder in patients undergoing spine surgery?
  58. What is the optimal treatment of spinal infections caused by Propionebacterium acnes?
  59. What should the strategy be if an inadvertent contamination during instrumented spine surgery occurs?
  60. What tests should be used to monitor response to antibiotic treatment in patients with spine infection?
  61. What type of surgical dressing is most effective for lowering rates of surgical site infection (SSI) in patients undergoing spine surgery?
  62. When do common blood biomarkers (e.g. CRP, ESR, procalcitonin) normalize after spine surgery?
  63. When should patients with suspected infections of the spine be referred to infectious disease?
  64. Which is the best alternative antimicrobial therapy for fluoroquinolone-resistant gram negative acute post-surgical infection of spinal surgery?
  65. Which patients with vertebral osteomyelitis are suitable for outpatient management? Does any criteria exist to aid in decision making?