1. Is there evidence to support certain types of flap coverage (muscle rather than fasciocutaneous flaps for example) after open tibial fractures?
  2. Are antibiotic coated rods and plates acceptable, versus cement only implants?
  3. Are there microorganism specific risk factors for acute infection in trauma patients (i.e., Does being a nasal carrier of MRSA increase the risk for MRSA infection after trauma?)
  4. Are there predictors of the need for allogeneic blood transfusion in arthroplasty for acute hip fractures?
  5. Does preoperative pneumonia/UTI/ trophic ulcers increase PJI/SSI risk in femoral neck fracture patients treated by partial/ total hip arthroplasty?
  6. Is there a difference in the risk of PJI with use of internal versus external fixation for treatment of periprosthetic fractures?
  7. How long should concurrent infection (UTI, pneumonia) be treated before surgery in hip fracture patients? Is there evidence for delaying surgery for treatment?
  8. Is periprosthetic fracture a risk for the development of a PJI?
  9. Is rate of infection different in patients who undergo hip arthroplasty for acute femoral neck fracture?
  10. Is synovial fluid or fracture hematoma always aseptic? If not, could this play a role in acute infection or PJI after ORIF?
  11. Is there a minimum number of complex osteomyelitis procedures a surgeon should perform annually to ensure proper outcomes?
  12. Is there a role for bacterial decolonization (for example, of MRSA in nares) in trauma cases?
  13. Is there a role for combination of local and systemic antibiotic delivery systems to treat fractures with overlying contaminated wounds?
  14. Is there a role for hyperbaric oxygen therapy and other non-antibiotic methods for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis/implant infections?
  15. Should all infected non-unions be treated in specializing septic centers?
  16. Should antibiotic cement rods be left permanently is situ?
  17. Should definitive fixation of fracture in a multi trauma patient and open abdomen be delayed until the abdomen is closed?
  18. Should open fracture wounds be closed primarily or closed secondarily? If closed primarily, which ones and under what criteria?
  19. What antibiotic should be used for low energy fractures? What antibiotic(s) should be used for high energy and grossly contaminated fractures?
  20. What are predictors of the need for allogeneic blood transfusion in periprosthetic fractures?
  21. What are the alternatives to segmental resection in septic non-union?
  22. What are the evidence-based recommendations for the use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in open fractures and traumatic wounds?
  23. What are the ideal strategies to prevent secondary and nosocomial contamination of open fracture wounds which are left open?
  24. What are the indications for non-Vancomycin antibiotics (such as linezolid or daptomycin) for MRSA infection?
  25. What diagnostic criteria define infected non-union of long bone?
  26. What diagnostic criteria must be fulfilled to qualify as a SSI (surgical site infection) in Orthopedic trauma (including external fixators)?
  27. What is best open fracture classification used presently? Gustilo-Anderson versus OTA open fracture classification (based on inter-observer reproducibility and predictiveness of outcomes)
  28. What is considered chronic osteomyelitis versus acute osteomyelitis? Does it matter?
  29. What is the appropriate timing for flap coverage of open fractures and traumatic wound defects?
  30. What is the appropriate timing of conversion to internal fixation following external fixation? How is this altered by pin site infection?
  31. What is the ideal composition of antibiotic impregnated spacers/beads in post-traumatic infections? Is preoperative microbial identification necessary?
  32. What is the ideal composition of antibiotic-impregnated intramedullary nails?
  33. What is the most appropriate management of early (prior to complete wound healing) infection after fracture fixation with stable fixation?
  34. What is the most appropriate management of early (before complete wound healing) infection after fracture fixation with unstable fixation?
  35. What is the most appropriate outcome measurement (clinical, radiographic, laboratory, etc.) for management of early infection after fracture fixation?
  36. What is the most optimal antibiotic treatment for chronic osteomyelitis?
  37. What is the most optimal prophylaxtic antibiotic coverage and treatment duration for open fractures of long bones?
  38. What is the optimal management (Masquelet technique, bone transfer) of post-infective bone defects in different long bones (tibia, femur, humerus, etc.)? How does this vary by type of defect (conical vs. cylindrical)?
  39. What is the optimal mechanism for delivery of local antibiotics in contaminated or infected wounds?
  40. What is the optimal timing of surgical debridement in open fractures?
  41. What is the optimum waiting time for bone grafting in staged management of septic nonunion?
  42. What is the recommended suppressive antibiotic therapy for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis after fracture fixation while the implant cannot be removed?
  43. What is the recommended volume and composition of irrigating fluid in the OR for open fractures and post-traumatic wounds?
  44. What is the recommended volume of irrigating fluid in the ED for open fractures?
  45. What is the relationship between implanted metal and colonization under a VAC in open fractures?
  46. What is the relationship between smoking and infection in fracture procedures? Is smoking history or only current smoking important? Does nicotine cessation at time of fracture reduce complication rates?
  47. What is the role of nutritional supplementation in avoiding infection in acute fracture cases?
  48. What modified sampling could be useful in cases of suspected infected extra-medullary fixation of intertrochanteric fractures, as aspiration from the hip is often negative?
  49. When performing intramedullary fixation, what is the evidence regarding reaming versus non-reaming and association with infection?
  50. When should hardware be removed when treating SSI (surgical site infection) in Orthopedic trauma?
  51. Which surgical treatment (plate, nail, external fixator) for open tibial shaft fractures results in lower rate of infection?
  52. Who are the essential members of the multidisciplinary team required to manage infected fractures and non-unions?